Rosen, battling with 15-year veteran Ryan Fitzpatrick for the Dolphins' starting job, helped Miami to a pair of field goals and a 6-3 halftime lead. Rosen was 13 for 20 with one interception in last week's 34-27 victory over Atlanta.
Fitzpatrick, who spent the previous two seasons with Tampa Bay, entered to start the second half and completed 3 of 9 passes for 20 yards before being replaced by Jake Rudock five minutes into the fourth quarter.
Tampa Bay rookie Matt Gay had two field goals, including a go-ahead 48-yarder with 6 seconds to play.
Buccaneers quarterback Jameis Winston played one series for the second consecutive week, completing 2 of 4 passes for 24 yards. He is in the final year of his rookie contract at a salary of nearly $21 million.
The Dolphins got within 13-12 on an 8-yard strike from Rudock to Patrick Laird with 34 seconds remaining in the fourth period. Rudock then put the Dolphins up 14-13 by hitting Trenton Irwin for the 2-point conversion.
The Buccaneers had a no-pass-interference call overturned after a video review with 3:36 left in the fourth that led to a tiebreaking touchdown. After the penalty on Tyler Patmon for interfering Justin Watson put the ball on the Miami 4, Ryan Griffin connected with Tanner Hudson for a 13-6 lead on the next play.
Bucs coach Bruce Arians opted to have his regulars play less than they might normally in a second preseason game because of the work done during joint practices with the Dolphins on Tuesday and Wednesday.
Miami's Jason Sanders made second-period field goals from 45 and 49 yards, the final one coming with 1 second remaining.
Gay kicked a 32-yard field goal in the second quarter. Cairo Santos tied it at 6 with a 23-yard field goal early in the fourth quarter.
Dolphins WR Preston Williams was targeted six times but made just one catch for 7 yards. The undrafted player had four receptions for 97 yards in last week's game against Pittsburgh.
Dolphins: RB Kenyan Drake (right foot) didn't play.
Buccaneers: LB Lavonte David (knee) remains out.
Dolphins: return home to play Jacksonville on Thursday night.
Buccaneers: host Cleveland next Friday night.
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