Talking the Tropics With Mike: Hurricane landfall on the North Carolina coast

Sept. 14, 2018 — The "Buresh Bottom Line": Always be prepared!.....First Alert Hurricane Survival Guide... City of Jacksonville Preparedness Guide... Georgia Hurricane Guide.  

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FLORENCE - landfall early Fri.... edge of eyewall at 6am... center of the eye at 7:35am EDT at Wrightsville Beach, NC very near Wilmington......

We're at "fork in the road", part II: At or while approaching landfall through Fri., the steering influences collapse & Florence will slow to a crawl.  At this point, Florence will drift &/or move erratically possibly including a move south &/or southwest. With close proximity to land, Florence will feel the effects of friction, dry continental air &shear - the storm will weaken.  But this set-up deserves close attention, especially for S. Carolina & Eastern Georgia.  I am not expecting Florence to dip near as far south as Jacksonville, FL but rather stays in or near the Carolina's through the weekend.


* Through Sunday: primary impacts look to be a breeze & very rough seas/surf & dangerous rip currents.  All boaters stay in port! Surfers will be tempted by decent & "clean" waves but beware of dangerous rip currents.  

* Virtually NO impacts inland.

* Stay up to date on the latest & potentially changeable forecasts. 

* Despite the wide span of Florence's winds & rain, no rain bands will directly affect NE Fl./SE Ga.... & - in fact - skies will be relatively sunny late into the weekend.  Strongest winds stay well offshore to the east & northeast of Jacksonville.  If Florence drops south & southwest, additional impacts would be possible but not until Sunday/Monday & not likely significant.

Everyone up & down the east coast of the U.S. - particularly the Carolina's - needs to stay vigilant regarding the latest forecasts...

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"Florence"  - a named storm for the 14th straight day Fri. - became the 3rd hurricane, 1st "major" of the '18 Atlantic season Tue.... went Cat. 3 then briefly Cat. 4 last Wed. ...  fell apart in the face of shear & dry air Thu.... continues moving into the Western Atlantic & made the expected comeback reaching Cat. 4 strength again Mon.  The tropical cyclone made the important turn northwest reaching Jacksonville's latitude BUT hundreds (400+) of miles to the east - late Wed./Wed. night.  Florence went through some serious structural alterations Wed. probably due to nearby dry air & some shear which has caused weakening & never could fully recover. Florence made landfall early Friday.

Despite the general weakening the last couple days, Florence will still be a big hit on the Carolina's:  Major to severe impacts can be expected on the S. & especially N. Carolina coasts. Don't make the mistake of getting too caught up in individual run output of any particular model.... OR in what unreliable sources might be posting.... OR tracking just the center!  Dangerous conditions will extend far from the eye of Florence.  And do NOT underestimate the power of Florence even though the storm has weakened.  Very heavy rain will cause widespread flooding, & the storm surge will likely be greater than what might usually be expected with a lower category storm.

As for track, there there will be at least some "dip" south/southwest through early Sat. then straightening back to the west before curving rather sharply north then northeast & accelerating early next week as Florence gets caught up in the westerlies. Now that the tropical cyclone is inland, Florence will have lost its energy source - the warm ocean water - & will rather quickly fill & weaken but still capable of dumping very heavy rain. It's worth noting that the decay will be slower than usual since the center will hug the coast for a while allowing a good portion of the circulation to remain over water.

As Florence flounders over the Carolina's there will be a pounding at the beaches with wave action & tremendous amounts of rain - most significant of these impacts will be north & northeast of the center.

So overall.... the critical points - "the forks in the road":

(1) when Florence was between Bermuda & the U.S. coast which kept Florence on a straight forward west then northwest course toward the Carolina's.

(2) Now we have a 2nd fork in the road - the weekend movement. STAY UP TO DATE!  As Florence slows, flooding problems & beach erosion - especially north of the eye could be tremendous.... & will also make pinpointing intensity extra problematic.

It looks like direct impacts on the U.S. will continue through Mon., the 17th or so in one form or another. Flooding may very well follow the path of the post-tropical low pressure from Eastern Tennessee northeastward through parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York & Massachusetts later in the weekend into early next week!

Bottom line: Don't panic but always be prepared.....



The map below is a mirror of the above spaghetti plots but shows an ensemble of all the model runs. DEFINITION OF ENSEMBLE MODELING: A set of forecasts that present the range of future weather possibilities. Multiple simulations are run, each with a slight variation of its initial conditions and with slightly perturbed weather models. These variations represent the inevitable uncertainty in the initial conditions and approximations in the models. They produce a range of possible weather conditions.

40 foot waves have been measure offshore of N. Carolina!:

Wave height model (GFS) forecast... European model a little more south & west which - if verifies - wave heights would be higher for NE Fl./SE Ga. but still much more significant for the coastal Carolina's north to Chesapeake Bay:

Heavy rain by late week middle east coast.  Rainfall over parts of N. Carolina & Virginia may exceed 1-2 feet! 1-3 day rainfall:

4-6 day rainfall:

Wide view of the busy Atlantic Basin. This is the first time in 10 years - since 2008 (Klotzbach) - there have been 4 named storms in the Atlantic Basin.  Joyce developed over the N. Atlantic Wed.... in addition to Isaac & Helene.  Another wave is moving off Africa & will move westward.  Forecast models are also showing possible long range development near & south of Bermuda & northeast of the Bahamas.... as well as over the E. Atlantic later next week....

Isaac will move farther west over the Caribbean as high pressure tries to assert itself across parts of the Central/Northern Atlantic & underneath Florence.  Shear looks to stay strong over the Caribbean has caused Isaac to weaken pretty quickly.  The GFS & European models are very similar in this regard.   Issac moved through the islands of the Lesser Antilles but impacts were minor - some heavy rain, gusty winds & rough seas/surf.  IF Isaac can somehow survive its current hostile environment, somewhat more favorable conditions will be over the W. Caribbean & Gulf of Mexico next week.

Helene & its full recurvature will continue over the Central/ E. Atlantic.  Helene might interact with Joyce over the N. Atlantic.  Both, however, stay far to the east over the open Atlantic.

I'm still keeping an eye on the Western Gulf of Mexico for possible tropical development but time is running out since the disturbance will be moving over land (Texas & Mexico) Fri. afternoon & night.  Spaghetti plots:

E. Atlantic:




Mid & upper level wind shear (enemy of tropical cyclones) analysis (CIMMS). The red lines indicate strong shear.  Note weaker shear in the path of Florence over the W. Atlantic while there's much stronger shear over the Caribbean......


The Atlantic Basin....



Gulf of Mexico:

Water vapor imagery (dark blue indicates dry air) - notice the dry air right up against Florence:

Deep oceanic heat content is seasonably high over the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico & SW Atlantic as one would expect now that we're near the peak of the hurricane season....

Sea surface temp. anomalies show a general recent warming over a good portion of the Atlantic Basin including rather dramatic warming east of the Caribbean & near the NE coast of S. America ....

SE U.S. surface map:

Surface analysis centered on the tropical Atlantic:

Surface analysis of the Gulf:


The Central Pacific: A weak Olivia has moved through Hawaii & will be followed by improving weather conditions....